THIS MONTH IN MINNESOTA HISTORY

JAN. 1

1840: Lawrence Taliaferro, tired of bribery attempts by crooked individuals, steps down as Indian agent at Fort Snelling, a position he had held since 1820. Native Americans and settler-colonists alike appreciated his honesty and intelligence, and his journals about life at Fort Snelling provide a detailed record of frontier Minnesota. He died on Jan. 22, 1871, aged 81.

1850: At the Minnesota Historical Society’s first annual meeting, the Reverend Edward D. Neill gives a lecture, the Sixth Regiment’s band provides music, and a grand ball is held in St. Paul’s Central House.

1869: African American Minnesotans hold a grand convention in St. Paul’s Ingersoll Hall “to celebrate the Emancipation of 4,000,000 slaves, and to express…gratitude for the bestowal of the elective franchise to the colored people of this State.”

1878: On an unusually balmy day, the steamer Aunt Betsy carries a load of passengers from St. Paul to Fort Snelling. Crowds line the Jackson Street landing, the bluffs, and the Wabasha Street Bridge to watch, and the passengers carry palm-leaf fans to stave off the heat.

1893: Workers nail the final spike in the 818 miles of track stretching from Pacific Junction, MT, to Everett, WA, completing the Great Northern Railroad and connecting St. Paul to the Pacific Ocean.

1969: The Coast Guard closes Split Rock Lighthouse after 59 years of service. Its grounds become a state park the following year.

JAN. 2

1883: Faribault Chief of Police David J. Shipley is fatally shot by Lewis M. Sage while attempting to arrest him after Sage threatened to shoot his own wife. Sage is later convicted of manslaughter in the fourth degree and sentenced to four years in the Minnesota State Prison at Stillwater.

1890: Hjalmar Petersen is born in Eskildstrup on the island of Fyn in Denmark. A veteran country-newspaper editor, he would serve as the state’s governor for four months in 1936 and 1937 (the shortest gubernatorial term in Minnesota history), following the death in office of Floyd B. Olson. Petersen died on March 29, 1968, while vacationing in Columbus, OH.

1917: About 1,000 lumbermen walk away from their jobs on the second day of a strike led by the Industrial Workers of the World. The workers, employed by the Virginia and Rainy Lake Lumber Company and the International Lumber Company, demand a pay increase, a nine-hour day, and sanitary living conditions.

2002: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves Medtronic’s CareLink Network, the first system that allows doctors to remotely monitor implanted medical devices via the internet.

JAN. 3

1848: A sewing club called the St. Paul Circle of Industry is formed to raise money for a new school building in St. Paul. The building would be completed in August 1849.

1905: The Minnesota legislature meets for the first time in the state capitol building designed by Cass Gilbert.

1916: Maxene Andrews is born in Minneapolis. With her sisters LaVerne (born July 6, 1911) and Patty (born Feb. 26, 1918), she would form the Andrews Sisters singing group, known as “America’s wartime sweethearts” and remembered for their 1941 hit “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy.”

1940: The Marlborough Apartment Hotel burns in Minneapolis, leaving at least four people missing, 25 in hospitals, and 18 dead. Apparently caused by a burning cigarette carelessly thrown into a garbage chute, the fire is described by the Minneapolis Journal as the worst catastrophe in the city since the explosion of the Washburn “A” Mill on May 2, 1878.

JAN. 4

1854: The Territorial Agricultural Society holds its first meeting. This group evolves into the State Agricultural Society, governing body of the State Fair. On the same day, the fifth territorial legislature convenes in an official capitol building for the first time.

1874: The Catholic Industrial School is incorporated. The school begins operations in 1877 on the shores of St. Paul’s Lake Menith, since drained and now the site of the University of St. Thomas. In 1879 the school moves to Clontarf, where Franciscan teachers instruct white and Native American boys in agricultural and industrial arts. Funding for such institutions is later cut, and the school would be sold to the federal government in 1897.

1920: William E. Colby is born in St. Paul. He would serve as director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1973 to 1976, under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

JAN. 5

1805: Joseph R. Brown is born in Harford County, Maryland. A drummer boy at Fort Snelling, he would learn the Dakota language and, later, become a trader, a member of the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature, a participant in both the Stillwater Convention and the Minnesota Constitutional Convention, the editor of the Minnesota Pioneer and the Henderson Democrat, and an officer during the U.S.–Dakota War. He would also be the first lumberman to float logs down the St. Croix River and would stake out the first road from St. Paul to Prairie du Chien. He died on Nov. 9, 1870.

1892: Mining classes begin at the University of Minnesota, as Professor William R. Appleby instructs a class of four students.

1928: Walter “Fritz” Mondale is born in Ceylon, MN. A lifelong public servant, he would represent Minnesota in the U.S. Senate, occupy the vice presidency under Jimmy Carter, run for president against Ronald Reagan, and serve as U.S. ambassador to Japan.

JAN. 6

1976: After presiding over the Reserve Mining lawsuit for two and a half years, Judge Miles Lord is removed from the case because he was thought to have a bias against the company.

1996: Maude Kegg, elder of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe and author of books on her childhood and Ojibwe stories, dies. Born on Aug. 26, 1904, she was raised in the traditional Ojibwe culture. In 1990 she earned a National Heritage Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts for her traditional beadwork.

2014: Governor Mark Dayton orders all schools in the state closed due to the cold weather predictions. This will be the first of many cold related closures winter leading districts to develop cold weather closure policies. The 2013–2014 winter is the coldest since 1978– 1979.

JAN. 7

1816: Stephen Miller is born in Carroll, PA. After moving to Minnesota at age 42, he would be a general in the Civil War and serve as the state’s fourth governor from 1864 to 1865. He died in Worthington on Aug. 18, 1881.

1850: John R. Irvine obtains a license to operate a ferry across the Mississippi River at St. Paul’s Upper Landing (formerly at the foot of Chestnut Street). The city’s Irvine Park is named for him.

1857: The Congregational Church in Faribault is dedicated, with the Reverend Lauren Armstrong serving as its first pastor.

1873: The Blizzard of 1873 strikes, with temperatures of 49 degrees below zero and winds of 75 miles per hour. Over the next two days, at least 70 people die in the western and southern parts of the state. Conditions are so blinding that in New Ulm a boy who has to cross the street from a barn to his home is found frozen eight miles away, and a rural man and his ox team freeze to death just 10 feet from his house.

1917: On this Sunday, all Catholic priests in the St. Cloud diocese are required to give at least one sermon in English.

1972: After a lengthy battle with alcoholism, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet John Berryman jumps to his death from the Washington Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis.

JAN. 8

1851: Hole-in-the-Day, an Ojibwe leader, sends a letter to the Minnesota territorial legislature inviting its members to come to a St. Paul church and hear him speak about the sufferings and needs of his people and their desire for peace. “They are like some poor animal driven into a hole, and condemned to die,” he will say, inspiring some of the most influential whites in the territory to form a committee to solicit contributions for the Ojibwe.

1920: Jacob A. O. Preus, Jr., son of soon-to-be Governor Preus, Sr., is born in St. Paul. After becoming president of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod in 1969, he, along with other advocates of traditionalism, would be troubled by alleged liberalism in the faculty at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis and their attitude toward biblical authority. A crucial struggle about doctrinal purity would ensue, with Preus successfully being reelected president in 1973 and thus securing the traditional ways of the synod.

1924: Six die when a car crashes through the ice on Lake Andrews, near Alexandria.

1934: During the Great Depression, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds a Minnesota mortgage moratorium law, a decision that state Attorney General Harry H. Peterson applauds as a “victory for the people of Minnesota that will enable many farmers and city dwellers to hold onto their homes until good times return.”

1971: President Richard Nixon signs a law creating Voyageurs National Park. Supported by former governor Elmer L. Andersen and Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr., the legislation had been approved by Congress on Oct. 5 of the previous year.

1991: Former Minnesota Twins and California Angels player Rod Carew is elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame.”A wizard with the bat,” Carew achieved a .328 lifetime batting average, hitting over .300 in 15 consecutive seasons with both teams.

JAN. 9

1840: Wisconsin Territory forms St. Croix County in the area between the Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers. Dahkotah, a town platted (surveyed and mapped) by Joseph R. Brown and now part of Stillwater, is the county seat.

1977: In a fourth Super Bowl appearance in eight years, the Minnesota Vikings football team loses for the fourth time, to the Oakland Raiders, 32-14.

JAN. 10

1925: “The Arrowhead” is selected as the official moniker for northeastern Minnesota, the result of a nationwide contest sponsored by the Northeastern Minnesota Civic and Commerce Association of Duluth.

1975: A fierce, three-day blizzard strikes, bringing one to two feet of snow (with some drifts reaching 20 feet) and winds up to 80 miles per hour, closing most Minnesota roads, stranding a train at Willmar, and killing 35 people and 15,000 head of livestock. The St. Paul Pioneer Press reports that an offshoot of an Arctic storm has blasted into the Midwest, commenting that the “Wind ain’t whistlin’ Dixie.”

1976: During a heavy snowstorm, 325 cars are damaged in a pileup on a Minneapolis freeway.

JAN. 11

1883: Henry Wilson, a “professional burglar,” and his pal Frank Wilmar, a horse thief, are caught by an alert janitor and the sheriff as they attempt to escape from the Ramsey County jail in St. Paul. They had stolen a sledgehammer from workmen and nearly managed to pound a hole through the stone floor of a cell into the basement.

1907: The St. Paul Institute of Science and Letters is incorporated, with Charles W. Ames as its first president. The institute’s museum is first located in the Auditorium, then moved to the Merriam mansion on University Avenue, and now dwells in downtown St. Paul, known as the Science Museum of Minnesota.

1909: Canada and the United States sign a treaty forming the International Joint Commission, a legislative body charged with preventing and settling disputes in the boundary waters region.

JAN. 12

1816: Willis A. Gorman is born in Flemingsburg, KY. He would be appointed second territorial governor of Minnesota in 1853 and would later serve in the legislature, command the First Minnesota Regiment in the Civil War, and be St. Paul’s city attorney from 1869 until his death on May 20, 1876.

1840: Governor James D. Doty of Wisconsin Territory (which includes part of the future state of Minnesota) writes to the U.S. secretary of war protesting an extension of the Fort Snelling military reservation and asking how the federal government can take land “by the simple declaration that it is necessary for military purposes” and without consent of the territorial legislature. The protest is in vain, and military authorities eventually expel “squatters” living in the fort area, causing many of them to move to the site that will become St. Paul.

1876: The Minnesota Forestry Association is formed to work for the passage of conservation laws to protect the state’s forests. At one time boasting 10,000 members, the association would prove so successful that state agencies and civic groups would take on its activities, and in 1948 the group would vote itself out of existence.

1888: A major blizzard strikes the state, hitting western Minnesota especially hard and causing the deaths of between 100 and 150 people, many of them children on their way home from school.

1913: Alexander T. Heine flies the first airplane over Minneapolis.

JAN. 13

1944: The cruiser Duluth is launched in Newport News, VA, christened by Ella T. Hatch, wife of Duluth mayor Edward H. Hatch. In May 1945 the ship becomes part of the U.S. fleet in World War II.

1978: Hubert H. Humphrey dies. Humphrey was born in Wallace, SD, on May 27, 1911. State campaign manager for Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944 and a founder of the anticommunist group Americans for Democratic Action, Humphrey entered the national spotlight after delivering a rousing address on civil rights at the 1948 Democratic National Convention. He served in the Senate beginning in 1948 and was elected vice president under Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. He lost to Richard Nixon in a close race for the presidency in 1968 and then in 1970 was reelected to the Senate, where he served until his death.

1982: Nature writer and environmentalist Sigurd Olson dies in Ely. Born in Chicago in 1899, Olson served as a canoe guide in the boundary waters region and was active in environmental issues beginning in the 1920s, playing a prominent role in the battle for federal protection of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness and serving as president of the Wilderness Society.

JAN. 14

1846: Stillwater’s first post office is established, with Elam Greeley as postmaster.

1850: The Minnesota Territorial Supreme Court opens for its first term, with Judge Aaron Goodrich presiding.

1938: The Hallie Q. Brown House, named for the African American civil rights advocate and suffragist, moves into its first permanent building in St. Paul. Offering tutoring and day camps for children, as well as emergency food and clothing for needy families, the community center would later relocate and combine with the Martin Luther King Center in St. Paul.

1976: Sauk Centre teachers end a week-long strike after the teachers’ association and the school board ratify a contract settlement that calls for a salary increase (with an additional 25 minutes of supervisory time) and provides teachers with no less than 250 minutes per week of preparation time.

1993: Ann Bancroft of St. Paul reaches the South Pole by skis, becoming the first woman to travel overland to both the North and South Poles. She leads the American Women’s Expedition on a 67-day trek during which the four women cover 660 miles on skis. Additionally, in 2001 Ann Bancroft and Liv Arneson would become the first women to ski across Antarctica.

1993: The movie Iron Will, a fictionalized account of a 1917 dogsled race from Winnipeg to St. Paul, opens nationwide. Albert Campbell, a Metis (mixed-blood) from Le Pas, Manitoba, won the real race, which was part of St. Paul’s Winter Carnival. The first written account of any dogsled race detailed a trip from Winnipeg to St. Paul in the 1850s.

JAN. 15

1829: Jacob H. Stewart is born. In 1864 Dr. Stewart would become St. Paul’s first Republican mayor, and he would also serve the state as a congressman and as surgeon general. Stewart Avenue in St. Paul is named for him.

1849: Henry H. Sibley is admitted to Congress as the delegate of Wisconsin Territory. This title is remarkable, for the bulk of Wisconsin Territory had already been formed into a state, but the citizens of the remaining part, St. Croix County, had sent Sibley to Washington to represent them.

1851: James M. Goodhue, editor of the Minnesota Pioneer, brawls in the street with Joseph Cooper, brother of territorial judge David Cooper. Cooper is upset because Goodhue printed a libelous column about his brother, which included the phrases “He is . . . a miserable drunkard . . . stuffed with arrogance, self conceit, and a ridiculous affectation of dignity.” Goodhue is stabbed and Cooper shot during the fracas, but both survive.

JAN. 16

1874: Willmar Village is incorporated. Platted (surveyed and mapped) in 1869, the township was named for Leon Willmar, a Belgian agent for European investors in the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad Company. Willmar would become a city in 1901.

1958: The Winona Daily News announces that 36 chinchillas, along with feed, cages, and other supplies, have been donated by a student and his father to the biology department of St. Mary’s College, to be used in research on improving the breed, whose fur is often made into expensive coats for women.

JAN. 17

1934: Banker Edward G. Bremer is kidnapped at the corner of Goodrich Avenue and Lexington Parkway in St. Paul. On Feb. 7, after his family pays a $200,000 ransom, Bremer is freed in Rochester. Bremer’s remarkable memory leads investigators to the kidnappers, the Barker-Karpis gang, the members of which would all be caught or killed by 1936.

JAN. 18

1849: Stephen A. Douglas, senator from Illinois, introduces a bill to organize Minnesota Territory.

1887: Boxing great John L. Sullivan breaks his arm in the first round of a fight with Patsey Cardiff in Minneapolis, but the bout continues for five more rounds before a tie is called.

1892: Frank Hibbing arrives in St. Louis County to test for a mine at the site that would eventually bear his name.

2014: Demolition of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome begins.

JAN. 19

1836: Six students attend the opening of the Lake Harriet Mission School for the Dakota, founded by the Reverend Jedediah D. Stevens. The school was sponsored by the Presbyterian Missions Board and taught by the founder’s niece, Lucy C. Stevens, in a cabin built by Gideon H. and Samuel W. Pond.

1862: Seeing battle for the first time and suffering 45 casualties, the Second Minnesota Regiment plays a key role in the Union victory at Logan’s Cross Roads, KY.

1928: Dainin Katagiri Roshi is born in Osaka, Japan. A Zen Buddhist abbot and teacher, Roshi would move to Minnesota in December 1972 and found the Minnesota Zen Meditation Center, located in Minneapolis near Lake Calhoun.

1935: Nathalie “Tippi” Hedren, who would star in the movie The Birds, is born in New Ulm.

JAN. 20

1896: On a theatrical tour, western character Calamity Jane (Martha Cannary Burk) appears at the Palace Museum in Minneapolis, dressed in the male attire of buckskin jacket and trousers and giving “the people of the eastern cities an opportunity of seeing the Woman Scout who was made so famous through her daring career in the West and Black Hill countries.”

1961: A fire destroys the Crosby family home, which had been built at the foot of Montreal Street in St. Paul and is now the site of Crosby Farm Park.

1969: President Lyndon B. Johnson bestows the Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor awarded by the United States, on civil rights activist Roy Wilkins. Wilkins was born in Mississippi but spent most of his life in St. Paul. In 1923 he graduated from the University of Minnesota, where he was the Minnesota Daily’s first black reporter and editor. He served as executive director of the NAACP from 1955 to 1977. A postage stamp honoring him was issued in 2001.

1981: L. Bruce Laingen, who grew up in Odin, is one of 52 hostages released from the American Embassy in Teheran after being held by Islamic militants for 444 days. Laingen was chargé d’affaires at the embassy.

JAN. 21

1844: Jacob V. Brower is born in York, MI. After moving to Minnesota in 1860, he would survey the headwaters of the Mississippi River and play an instrumental role in the preservation of Itasca State Park. He died in 1905.

2017: About 100,000 people gather in St. Paul to protest the policies of President Donald Trump, inaugurated the previous day. The ensuing march and rally at the State Capitol are part of similar events held nationwide to coincide with the 2017 Women’s March in Washington, D.C.

JAN. 22

1819: Morton S. Wilkinson is born in New York State. He would move to Stillwater in 1847, become Minnesota’s first practicing attorney, and serve in Congress as a senator (1859–65) and a representative (1869–71). He died in 1894.

1857: Five Benedictine monks obtain a charter to establish St. John’s Seminary in Collegeville. The seminary evolves into St. John’s University, the oldest Catholic institution of higher learning in the state.

1962: An out-of-control car careens over the side of St. Paul’s High Bridge, lands upside-down on a row of telephone wires, rebounds into the air, and lands on its four wheels. Amazingly, no injuries are reported in the 75-foot fall.

1967: During the era of rock ‘n’ roll, KSJR (St. John’s Radio) begins broadcasting from St. John’s University in Collegeville as a station devoted to classical music and the fine arts. KSJR would develop into Minnesota Public Radio, one of the largest and most successful public radio systems in the country.

JAN. 23

1855: A cable suspension bridge opens between Minneapolis and Nicollet Island. The first permanent span over the main channel of the Mississippi River, it could be crossed by paying a toll of three cents (one way) or five cents (round trip) per human foot-passenger, 15 cents per horse, and two cents per head for sheep.

1865: First National Bank of Minneapolis commences business with a capital of $50,000. With beginnings in a private bank co-owned by its first president, Jacob K. Sidle, the institution would go through several name changes, celebrating 75 years in business in 1939 as First National Bank and Trust Company of Minneapolis and then reverting to its original name in 1943.

1929: The three-day trial of Lake Charles resident Ben Shock, charged with not having a license for his beagle, begins. Declaring a case of mistaken identity, Shock claims that his beagle had died and that the license fee collector had seen him with another beagle. Shock refuses to pay bail and is jailed for 30 days while the judge ponders the case, finally ruling that Shock had been wronged and should be set free.

1976: Milton Reynolds, an Albert Lea native who became a millionaire by his astute and early mass production and promotion of a new type of ball-point pen in the 1940s, dies in Chicago.

1986: Northwest Airlines agrees to buy Republic Airlines for $884 million, a purchase that would form a single Twin Cities-based carrier and the third-largest airline in the United States.

1986: William Rubin, former president of Flight Transportation Corporation of Eden Prairie, and Janet Karki, his chief financial officer, are found guilty by a federal jury in St. Paul of perpetrating “the largest financial fraud in Minnesota’s history” by engineering a sale of about $25 million in stock for a mostly fictitious company.

JAN. 24

1848: Citizens of St. Croix County, Wisconsin Territory, protest a plan to incorporate their county into the new state of Wisconsin. Their land would become part of Minnesota Territory in 1849.

1881: Suffering from dyspepsia, heart disease, and depression, Justus C. Ramsey, younger brother of statesman Alexander, commits suicide in St. Paul. After winning $10,000 in a lottery, Justus had arrived in Minnesota from Pennsylvania in 1849, invested heavily in real estate, and served in the territorial legislature. In early August 1862 he was one of a party that attempted to deliver an annuity payment in gold from the U.S. government to Dakota Indians. The Civil War delayed the gold’s arrival from Washington and put the Dakota in a state of deprivation and near-starvation, factors leading to the U.S.-Dakota War that erupted on Aug. 18. Ramsey and his companions reached Fort Ridgely on Aug. 20, the day before it was attacked, and remained there during the siege. Unable to disperse the money, the party later returned with the kegs of gold to St. Paul.

JAN. 25

1867: St. Paul’s Mansion House hotel burns to the ground after a fire starts in the kitchen and there is a delay in getting enough hose for a steam fire engine. “The circumstances . . . strongly point to incendiarism as the cause,” remarks the St. Paul Pioneer, noting that a fire set in the same place nearly destroyed the hotel in fall 1865.

1886: A six-day bicycle race begins at the Washington Avenue Rink in Minneapolis, with some of the best-known professional male bicyclists in the country competing for the prizes of a medal (sponsored by the Minneapolis Tribune and “emblematic of the long distance championship of America”) and an “elegant suit of clothes, which will be presented by Oscar the Tailor.” Held within the rink, the race is also an endurance test for each participant, who pedals his high wheel bicycle, with a big front wheel and a small rear wheel, around the track for the “largest score” of miles covered. The winner on Jan. 30 is “dark horse” Albert Schock of Chicago with 923 miles and five laps.

1915: Clay School serves the first “penny luncheon” in Minneapolis, “a financial and dietetic experiment” by the Woman’s Club of Minneapolis and the Parents and Teachers’ Association. For two cents each, students purchase a meal of creamed rice (with raisins) and bread and cocoa, a “more wholesome . . . repast than many of the youngsters have been buying . . . in confectionery stores in the neighborhood.” If the luncheons prove successful, the Minneapolis Journal notes, “the school board will be asked to authorize their establishment in a number of other public schools.”

1983: The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago rules that Minnesota Ojibwe, including the Mille Lacs Band, retain the hunting, fishing, and gathering rights guaranteed by nineteenth-century treaties with the federal government.

JAN. 26

1836: Lucius F. Hubbard is born in Troy, New York. After arriving in Minnesota in 1857, he would establish and edit the newspaper Red Wing Republican and would serve as a general in the Civil War and in the Spanish-American War. He would be ninth governor of the state, serving from 1882 to 1887; his second term lasted three years to cover the legislature’s change to biennial sessions. During his tenure the Railroad and Warehouse Commission would be established. He died Feb. 5, 1913. Hubbard County is named in his honor.

1861: Frank O. Lowden is born near Sunrise City (now Sunrise) and later moves to Illinois, where he becomes a lawyer and marries Florence, daughter of George M. Pullman, the wealthy inventor of the railway sleeping car. After Pullman’s death, Lowden would manage some of the Car King’s enterprises, serve in Congress, become governor of Illinois, lose a nomination for president, and decline a vice-presidential nomination.

1924: Minneapolis policeman George Kraemer fatally shoots Peter C. Johnson with a sawed-off shotgun in a dark basement as Johnson attempts to crack open a safe he and his “assistant,” William Carson, stole during a robbery.

1942: Private Milburn Henke of Hutchinson, serving with the American Expeditionary Force, is the first enlisted man deployed to Europe in World War II.

1949: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company announces the invention of a machine for the mass recording of magnetic audio tape.

JAN. 27

1871: Kentucky Congressman James Proctor Knott delivers the speech “The Glories of Duluth” in Congress, mocking the city in an effort to defeat a bill granting land to the St. Croix and Lake Superior Railroad. Duluth’s citizens appreciate the free publicity, however, and the town of Proctor is named for him.

1960: Grand Portage National Monument, established by Congress in 1958 and located within the Grand Portage Indian Reservation, is dedicated when Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton accepts the site from the Grand Portage Band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. The eight-and-ahalf mile “Great Carrying Place” near the mouth of the Pigeon River was a major gateway into the interior of North America for exploration, trade and commerce.

JAN. 28

1890: Farmers in Clarks Grove, Freeborn County, form a dairy cooperative. This co-op is not the state’s first, but its success would inspire other communities to use Clarks Grove’s organizational system and its bylaws, which were written in Danish, as a model.

1891: As a group of Ojibwe assembles for a Ghost Dance, a rumor of an uprising at Lake of the Woods spreads and many white settler-colonists flee the Roseau Valley. Upon investigation, Sheriff Oscar Younggren discovers that the gathering is peaceful. Fearing that the colonists might take revenge upon their return, a few Ojibwe feed and water their animals in their absence.

JAN. 29

1900: A fire destroys much of the business section of Morristown, Rice County, burning 20 buildings, including a bank, post office, and hotel.

1906: Catholic bishop John Ireland dedicates the organ in the Church of the Immaculate Conception in Faribault.

2002: In a special election, Laos-born St. Paul lawyer Mee Moua is elected to the Minnesota State Senate. She is the first Asian woman elected to the Minnesota Legislature and the first Hmong American elected to any state legislature.

JAN. 30

1867: Ralph Waldo Emerson lectures in Winona at the courthouse. Sponsored by local library associations, Emerson’s tour of the Midwest also includes stops in Faribault, St. Paul and Minneapolis.

1958: The states of Minnesota and North Dakota agree that Minnesotans who work in North Dakota and North Dakotans who work in Minnesota will not be required to pay income tax in both states.

1992: Charlie Boone reaches an agreement with WCCO-AM radio regarding his impending retirement from full-time announcing duties, which will end the 30-year Boone and (Roger) Erickson partnership, one of the station’s most popular features.

JAN. 31

1780: Jonathan Carver dies in London. Arriving at the future site of St. Paul in 1766, Carver met with Dakota leaders and witnessed ceremonies in Wakan Tipi, a cave that settler-colonists named after him. His descendants would later allege that the Dakota had ceded him a sizeable tract of land, but the U.S. Senate would reject this bogus claim in 1823. Carver had written a book about his adventures in which he made no mention of the land grant.

1883: The Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, the founding organization of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Minneapolis School of Art (now the Minneapolis College of Art and Design), is incorporated, with William W. Folwell of the University of Minnesota as its first president.

Source: MNopedia.org; from The Minnesota Book of Days (Minnesota Historical Society Press).

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